- Generic name: Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride
- Brand names: Cipro, Ciprobay, Ciloxan, Proquin, Baycip
- Drug class: Fluoroquinolone antibiotic
What is Ciprofloxacin used for?
- Urinary tract infections - cystitis, pyelonephritis. Ciprofloxacin is active against most pathogenic bacteria in the urinary tract and is a good option when
other antibiotics fail to cure UTI.
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis
- Skin and bone infections
- Inhalational anthrax
- Infectious diarrhea, Shigellosis
- Some sexually transmitted diseases.
Ciprofloxacin is NOT recommended for:
- Pneumonia: Ciprofloxacin should not be used to treat pneumonia because of its poor activity against S. pneumoniae.
- Chlamydia: Ciprofloxacin has inadequate activity against C. trachomatis.
- Gonorrhoea: Ciprofloxacin is no longer recommended as first-line treatment for gonorrhoea because of increased resistance of N. gonorrhoeae3.
- Known hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin or any fluoroquinolone.
- Concomitant use with tizanidine.
Ciprofloxacin and tendon damage
Tendinitis and tendon rupture are now well recognised but rare serious side effect of ciprofloxacin and other
Most of the tendinitis and tendon ruptures affect the Achilles tendon, followed by quadriceps femoris tendon, rotator cuff
tendons (especially supraspinatus) and biceps brachii tendon, although any tendon can be affected.
These risk factors include age over 60 years, use of corticosteroids, and renal failure. People aged >60 years have
been found to have a threefold increased relative risk of tendon damage, whereas concurrent corticosteroid use in this elderly
group has been found to have a sixfold increased risk1.
Serious drug interactions
- Antacids (aluminum- and magnesium-containing), calcium, iron salts, zinc salts - decreased oral absorption of
- Clozapine - increased clozapine concentrations.
- Glyburide - severe hypoglycemia reported.
- Phenytoin - altered phenytoin concentrations.
- Theophylline derivatives - increased theophylline concentrations, which may result in toxicity and death. Interaction
between ciprofloxacin and theophylline can be clinically significant.
- Tizanidine - levels of tizanidine may be elevated 7-fold. Concomitant use contraindicated.
Ciprofloxacin and Milk
Do not take Ciprofloxacin hcl with dairy products such as milk or yogurt2. Calcium in
dairy products and other calcium-rich foods can bind to ciprofloxacin in the digestive tract, preventing it from being absorbed
into the bloodstream.
It is best to take ciprofloxacin at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after drinking milk or eating calcium-rich foods,
unless you are eating these foods as part of a meal containing other foods. These other foods will decrease the calcium
Ciprofloxacin and Caffeine
Limit consumption of coffee, tea, or caffeine-containing drinks. Regular consumption of large quantities of caffeine-containing
products during treatment with ciprofloxacin may cause caffeine to accumulate in the body, resulting in exaggerated caffeine
- 1. Van der Linden P, Sturkenboom M C, Herings R M. et al Fluoroquinolones and risk of Achilles
tendon disorders: case‐control study. BMJ 2002. 3241306–1307.1307.
- 2. Neuvonen PJ, Kivistö KT, Lehto P. Interference of dairy products with the absorption
of ciprofloxacin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Nov;50(5 Pt 1):498-502.
- 3. CDC Changes Recommendations for Gonorrhea
Author: OriginalDrugs Team
Last reviewed: February, 2015